PragmatIC wafer

Frequently Asked Questions

LIFT Printing

What are the main differences between LIFT and Inkjet?

In the LIFT method printing of very viscous inks is possible, resulting in a large verity of inks and pastes suitable for printing among them very high metal load conductive inks (>50%). With inkjet the viscosity has to be very low limiting the number of inks suitable for the process and the metal loading of the conductive inks.

What materials can be LIFT printed?

In theory any material that absorbs the laser and has the right rheology can be printed.

  • What material can be printed on with LIFT?

The “receiver” substrate can be any material, most common materials are plastic, glass and metal coatings.

How fast is LIFT printing?

LIFT printing is limited by laser scanning speed, 1 m/sec is a common speed of Galvo scanners.

What is the minimum spacing/width/pitch that can be reliably printed?

This depends on ink and substrate parameters, 50/50 um line spacing or better is achievable.

What is the thickness of LIFT printed pattern?

This also depends on ink and substrate parameters, thickness of < 0.5um is achievable.

Is the pattern conductive and can be electrically tested after printing?

No, the pattern is only conductive after sintering.

Is LIFT limited to 2-dimensional printing?

No, a stack can be printed using the same material in order to increase Hight, or with different materials in order to create a stack (for example conductor with isolator on top).

What is the gap between the “donor” and the “receiver”

Starting from 50um up to 1mm depending on ink and printing properties.


How fast can you sinter?

The speed that we are able to sinter is dependent on a number of factors such as the line thickness and the robustness of the substrate to optical energy. We have demonstrated sintering capabilities at up to 4 m/s.

What materials can be sintered?

During the HiperLAM project silver and copper inks provided by PVNano have been sintered. Other inks could potentially be sintered.

What is the width of lines that can be sintered?

During the HiperLAM project we have sintered lines that range from 70um to 340um in width. Smaller line sizes then this would be achievable.

What line thickness can you sintering?

During the HiperLAM project we have sintered lines ranging from 500nm to 5um thick.

What resistances can you achieve?

During the HiperLAM project we have achieved resistances below 10 times bulk using the PVNano supplied inks.

What is the maximum temperature of the substrate during the sintering?

The materials that we have been sintering on are not suitable for oven sintering at temperatures above 125 degrees Celsius. Printed lines on top of these substrates have been laser sintered without any damage to the substrate. During the project we carried out some theoretical work to determine the temperature in the substrates below 800nm of ink. The result of this model can be seen in figure 1 below for different pulse energies.

Fingerprint Sensor

What is the fingerprint sensor resolution?

Resolution varies from 172ppi to 500ppi depending on applications.

What is the pixel size?

Pixel size varies from 50µm to 148µm.

What is the active area?

Active area is between 1”x1” and 3”x4”.

Can the sensor be curved?

Yes, sensor can be curved to a radius of curvature 20cm.

What is the total thickness of sensor?

Total thickness of sensor is less than 0.5mm.


What are the advantages of direct prining onto FlexIC's?

HiperLAM offers advantages of direct printing onto FlexICs to simplify assembly and supply-chains.

What could this technology be applied to?

Initially this could be applied to antenna for certain types of RFID. In the longer-term, there is potential to create digitally unique circuits in other applications areas connecting sensors and other components, such as betteries, as part of the IoT.

What are the main features of PragmatIC’s ConnectIC® family of tags?

PR1100 series features

  • 13.56 MHz operating frequency
  • 50 kbps typical data rate
  • 16 and 64 bit LPROM total memory
  • Simple readers to minimise total cost

What are the main benefits of PragmatIC’s ConnectIC® family of tags?

Key benefits

  • Ultra-low cost
  • Fast read times
  • Integrated energy harvesting
  • Ideal for mass market objects

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Scientific Publications
The HIPERLAM Project is an initiative of the Photonics and Factories of the Future Public Private Partnerships and received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No. 723879
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